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Dr. Daniel E. Keyler, PharmD, FAACT, developed an interest in venomous snakes while he was in high school. He helped care for the snake collection of Sherman A. Minton, Jr., MD, while he was in Pakistan writing his herpetofaunal monograph. Dr. Minton was a mentor and true friend until his passing in 1999. Dan earned a BS Science, Purdue University, and BS Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy degrees, University of Minnesota. From 1985-2011, Dr. Keyler was Medical Faculty, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center. Concurrently, he was Co-Director of Toxicology Research, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation and researched antitoxin antibodies (including antivenom) and vaccines that resulted in over 100 peer-reviewed scientific publications. Dr. Keyler was inducted as a Fellow of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, in Washington D.C., 2011. Currently, he is a Professor in the Department of Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology at the University of Minnesota. Dan served as President of the North American Society of Toxinology 2016-18, and as Envenomations Section Chair, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology 2002-07. Dan’s publications include 45 toxicology, toxinology, and venomous snakebite book chapters, and coauthor/editor of three books, Venomous Bites from Non-Venomous Snakes (1st edition 2011; 2nd edition 2023), and Venomous Snakebite in the Western United States (2005). Dan’s research interests in Crotalus horridus in the Upper Mississippi River Valley led to him becoming a founding member of a national Conservation Action Plan Committee that published, The Timber Rattlesnake: Life History, Distribution, Status, and Conservation Action Plan (2022). Dr. Keyler continues to enjoy field work with venomous snakes in temperate and tropical geographic regions of the world. Abstract 1  Abstract 2

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Michael D. Cardwell, M.S, is a Consulting Biologist with the Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center in Tucson and an Adjunct Research Associate in the Department of Biology at San Diego State University. Mike earned an MS degree in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation with a thesis examining the behavioral response of rattlesnakes to drought. He conducted the only long-term study of Mohave Rattlesnakes, which was prominently featured in Animal Planet’s Venom ER television series. He has authored or coauthored dozens of scientific and medical publications about venomous creatures and the injuries they cause, including the Wilderness Medical Society’s treatment guidelines for pitviper envenomations, the Mohave Rattlesnake species account in Rattlesnakes of Arizona, and he is co-editor of The Biology of Rattlesnakes, a 600-page compilation of contributions by 90 scientists and physicians. His own non-technical book, The Mohave Rattlesnake and How It Became an Urban Legend, was published in 2020. He currently studies the variation in rattlesnake venom components and how that affects human snakebites, and he uses radiotelemetry to study the ecology and behavior of wild rattlesnakes. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Stephen P. Mackessy, Ph.D., is a professor of biology in the Biological Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado. His lab investigates fundamental questions in biology using venomous snakes and their venoms as a basic platform, and he has published over 200 scientific papers, book chapters and natural history notes, several books, and special editions of several journals. He utilizes an integrative approach to study diverse phenomena ranging from the molecular basis of behaviors to structure/function relationships in proteins to genome-level regulation of phenotypic expression. Studies of the evolution and diversification of toxins, both at the molecular level and at a population level, have led to the investigation of purified toxins as potential therapeutic leads. Another area of research considers the structure and function of snake venom glands, particularly regulatory mechanisms that stabilize toxins biologically and biophysically. Research has included many graduate (30) and undergraduate (60) students, as well as colleagues from nine countries, the University of Texas and other US universities. His research program has been supported by many national, state and local funding agencies. Dr. Mackessy also teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in biomedicine and vertebrate biology at UNC, where he has received awards in recognition of outstanding research and teaching. He earned a B.A. and M.A. in Biology (Eco-Evo) at UC Santa Barbara, Department of Biology, and his Ph.D. (minor: Biochemistry) was received from Washington State University (with Dr. K.V. Kardong). He was a postdoctoral Research Associate at Colorado State University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology before joining Biological Sciences at UNC. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. William Hayes, Ph.D., is a professor of biology at Loma Linda University, California. He and his students study a variety of venomous animals, including rattlesnakes, spiders, scorpions, and centipedes. Although they have focused especially on the behavioral use of venom and venom composition variation, they have explored other aspects of the morphology, behavior, and ecology of these unique creatures. Beyond the work with venomous animals, they also have examined the behavior, ecology, and conservation of endangered reptiles and birds within the California, Caribbean Islands, and Galapagos Islands biodiversity hotspots. In addition to publications in scientific journals, he has co-edited several volumes, including The Biology of Rattlesnakes, The Biology of Rattlesnakes II, and Iguanas: Biology and Conservation. He also has written articles about environmental stewardship in an effort to promote a stronger conservation ethic among faith groups.  Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Elda E. Sánchez, Ph.D., is the Director of the National Natural Toxins Research Center (NNTRC) and a Professor of Biochemistry at Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TAMUK), Kingsville, Texas. Dr. Sánchez graduated with her B.S. in Biology from Texas A&I University, M.S. in Biology from TAMUK, and her Ph.D. in Toxinology from the Central University of Venezuela. She joined the Department of Chemistry in 2010 as an Assistant Professor and became the head of the NNTRC in 2012. She is the PI of a $2.7 million Viper Resource Center grant from the National Institutes of Health/Office of Research Infrastructure Programs. The NNTRC is organized to support biomedical basic and translational research on snake venom and venomous snakes. Dr. Sánchez has over 100 publications in her field. She is the Past-President of the North American Society of Toxinology and the Secretary of the International Society on Toxinology. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Sarah E. Carotenuto, DVM, DABVP (CF), is an Assistant Professor at the University of Arizona College of Veterinary Medicine in Tucson, Arizona, and a practicing small animal/exotics emergency veterinarian. She completed her undergraduate studies at Duke University and her veterinary doctorate at North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine before heading west and never looking back. Dr Carotenuto has practiced in Arizona for 16 years and developed an interest in pitviper envenomation cases and antivenom by asking simple clinical questions and then basing studies around these questions. She leads the Small Animal Clinical Toxicology and Gastrointestinal Systems courses at the University of Arizona College of Veterinary Medicine and has an interest in ultrasound, soft tissue surgery, and emergency and critical care medicine. Abstract Back to Top

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Jude McNally, RPh, DABAT, is a native Arizonan and has yet to outgrow his fascination with critters of the Sonoran Desert, eventually steering this interest to all things venomous. After studying chemistry at Northern Arizona University and Pharmacy & Toxicology at the University of Arizona, Jude joined the University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy’s newly established Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center (APDIC) in 1980. He was licensed by the Arizona Board of Pharmacy in 1982, credentialed as a Poison Specialist in 1983, and board certified in Toxicology in 1997. Over his 28 years at the APDIC, Jude served as a poison specialist, assistant director, and finally as the director. During his time in the APDIC, Jude was awarded an Arizona Game and Fish Department Heritage Fund Grant to study the Translocation of Rattlesnakes, he has authored and co-authored dozens of peer reviewed publications on venomous animals and has conducted over 200 presentations about venomous animals. Retiring from the U of A in 2009, Jude joined Rare Disease Therapeutics where he had oversight of their clinical research and education for the development of scorpion, pit viper, and black widow antivenoms. These days he is enjoying his retirement in Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Abstract Back to Top

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Ms. Kimberly M. Wyatt, M.S., is an assistant professor of biology at Good Samaritan College in Cincinnati, Ohio. She received her BS in environmental science from Thomas More University and her MS in biology from the University of Cincinnati, where she is pursuing a Ph.D. Her research focuses include the genetics, morphology, diet, and gut microbiome of the invasive Common Wall Lizard, Podarcis muralis, among other herpetological studies. She has a special interest in improving snakebite outcomes. In addition to her role as vice president of National Snakebite Support, she volunteers with the Asclepius Snakebite Foundation. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Nicklaus P. Brandehoff, MD, is board-certified in emergency medicine, medical toxicology, and addiction medicine with a passion for herpetology and a specialization in the research and treatment of envenomations.  He received his Doctorate of Medicine from the University of California San Francisco, completed residency in Emergency Medicine at UCSF-Fresno, and subsequently went on to complete a Medical Toxicology Fellowship at the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center. Dr. Brandehoff practices emergency medicine and medical toxicology in both Colorado and California. He has an appointment as Assistant Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, is faculty at the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center and Denver Health. He has won numerous awards as an educator and published multiple articles and book chapters on the subject of envenomations. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Spencer Greene, MD, MS, FACEP, FACMT, FAACT, FAAEM, is a Clinical Professor at the University of Houston College of Medicine. He serves as the Director of Toxicology and an attending emergency physician at HCA Houston Healthcare-Kingwood, where he oversees one of the busiest snakebite services in the U.S. His research interests include envenomations, salicylate poisoning, antimuscarinic toxicity, anticonvulsant overdoses, and alcohol withdrawal. He has authored more than 50 book chapters and scholarly articles and is the recipient of multiple teaching and clinical awards. Dr. Greene has directed the Houston Venom Conference since 2013. He serves as the Co-Chair of the newly-established American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxinology section and directed the ACMT Natural Toxins Academy. Dr. Greene graduated from Washington University in St. Louis with a BA in psychology and biology. He earned an MS in immunology from C.W. Post, Long Island University. He graduated magna cum laude with an MD from Albany Medical College. He completed his emergency medicine residency at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and his medical toxicology fellowship at Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center.  Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Craig Woods, DVM, MS, MBA, is the Director of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity Projects at the Institute for Future Health, a joint venture between Arizona State University and the University of Arizona. Craig’s current research focuses on control of infectious diseases but he maintains a special research interest in toxinology. From 2015-2021, Craig was the Director of Midwestern University's Institute for Healthcare Innovation where he managed human phase II-IV clinical trials, comparative research, sponsor relations, and clinical study collaborations with external hospitals.  During this time, he managed and served as an investigator on various clinical and translational studies in the areas of infectious disease, toxinology, oncology, orthopedics, and cardiovascular disease. From 1998-2015, Craig worked in the pharmaceutical industry conducting due diligence, licensing and commercialization, and clinical development efforts including development of antitoxins and antivenoms.  Prior to industry, Craig was in small animal practice in Arizona. Craig received his B.S., D.V.M., and M.S. from the University of Missouri, and his M.B.A. from Arizona State University. Abstract Back to Top

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Dr. Sean P. Bush, M.D., F.A.C.E.P., is an American emergency physician, researcher, author, and presenter on the topic of envenomation medicine. His work has spanned over 30 years and was the subject of the 11-part television series, Venom ER ( In 2022, Dr. Bush was elected President of the North American Society of Toxinology. He also serves on the World Health Organization Snakebite Envenoming Roster of Experts. He is a member of the Data Safety Monitoring Board for an international clinical trial evaluating an oral medication for snakebites. He is affiliated with the Asclepius Snakebite Foundation and traveled to Guinea last year to help in the snakebite clinic there. Dr. Bush received a certificate of appreciation from the White House Medical Unit. From the Wilderness Medical Society, he has received the Research Award (2005), the Hultgren Award (2001), and a Research Training Award (1999). Also, Dr. Bush is involved in several clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of antivenoms for snake and spider bites. He has 52 publications on PubMed, and according to Scopus metrics, he has an h-index of 19. “First and foremost” (in his words) Sean is the father of two thriving young people. Abstract Back to Top

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